THE FUTURE AUTOMOBILE (Part 5) American Steam/Electrics/Hybrids

Oct 13, 2013

An American makes the first automobile in 1865. Electric vehicles come to the fore and hybrids make everything possible.

American Steam

As I was reviewing this study on alternative fuels I realized that my sources, some of them from the 1800s, were from Europe and therefore possibly Euro-centric in view. When I want back looking for global and American specific references to steam vehicle innovations I made further discoveries of steam automobiles from the mid 1800s worth noting. The reason I want to enter these vehicles in this study is that I found pictures of these vehicles that showed significant progress in single operator functionality over the Frenchman Bollee's 1881 La Rapide that I discussed in my last posting, only occurring in the 1860s in America.

1861 Model Roper

1865 Model Roper

Sylvester H. Roper manufactured steam engines in the mid 1800s. He also made ten steam automobiles, and was written about in 1863 in Scientific American for a two-seat vehicle operated by one person. Please note the significant changes between the 1861 vehicle and the 1865 model in the photographs above. In the 1865 model the traditional upright boiler is gone, the smoke stack is brought under the vehicle, and all fueling and operational controls are accessible to the driver. [30] Roper keeps working on miniaturizing his small yet powerful steam engines, adapting it to one of the first motorcycles (velocipede) in 1869. Frenchmen Michaux-Perreaux beats Roper in being the first motorcycle by one year inventing the first steam velocipede in 1868.

Sylvester Roper's success inspires many other Americans to develop steam automobiles. In 1867 Francis Curtis of Newburyport, Massachusetts builds a four wheeled steam vehicle and is noted for having applied steam to fire fighting equipment. He is also noted for having been the first to reposes a vehicle for non-payment and for the first getaway having driven his steam car to avoid arrest by a policeman on foot. [30]

Copeland carrying Frances Benjamin Johnston on his Phaeton Moto-Cycle at the Smithsonian Institution Building in 1888. Behind are his partner Sandford Northrop, and Smithsonian officials E. H. Hawley, W. H. Travis and J. Elfreth Watkins. [35]

Of special note, Lucius Copeland in Phoenix, Arizona built in 1881 a three wheeled, tandem two seat vehicle with an oil-fired vertical boiler. Copeland, together with the Northrup Manufacturing Company, produced some 200 of these vehicles. [33] With advancements and production the steam vehicle is heading in the direction of overcoming all objections that owners and drivers would have over the dominant form of transportation of the day, the horse and horse drawn carriages.

The above pictured vehicles make it obvious that the automobile, as we know the automobile to be, was invented at the latest by American Sylvester H. Roper in 1865, and it was powered by steam. From now on, to be historically accurate, Karl Benz's and Gottlieb Daimler's inventions should be referred to as the first “internal combustion engine automobiles” and not the first automobiles.

As wonderful as the Roper automobile was in 1865, the age of serial and mass production had not yet fully developed. Roper produced 10 vehicles over a 25-year period. Also, according to Scientific American at the time, the public needed much educating "to get new things accepted, regardless of how good they are. Verily, we need open minds." [32] The period of time surrounding the end and the beginning of the 19th and 20th century, brought astounding technological change and the industrialization of the western world. Even though there was a great deal of acceptance of the new technology, it must have come with a shock to many whose way of life, prior to this period, had not changed for generations.

George E. Whitney at the turn of the 19th and 20th centuries combines most of the innovations made by himself, Roper, Copland and others into the first practical steam powered vehicle of the day. Whitney's work, though only used on a few vehicles, was manifested by strongly influencing the work of the Stanley brothers. [32]

The 1906 Stanley "Rocket" or "Flying Teapot."

S. H. Roper and George E. Whitney open the world to the practical steam automobile and pioneer the market entered into by R. E. Olds, Henry Ford and the Stanley brothers. [32] In the early 1900s "More than 100 American plants were making steamers, the most famous of which were the Stanley brother[']s factory in Newton, Massachusetts."[1] Identical twins Freelan Oscar and Francis Edgar Stanley ventured into steam car production in 1897. Having become wealthy by selling their dry photographic plate coating process to George Eastman of the Eastman Kodak Company the Stanley brothers turned their inventive powers to steam automobiles. Taking from what they have learned from others they produced vehicles that once warmed up were practical and functional. Their engines had only 13 parts and the number of parts needed to complete an entire vehicle was only 37. The vehicles were fast as indicated by the image above of the "Rocket" and they had far more torque than internal combustion engines of the time. Stanley Motor Carriage Company produced 86 major models and sold nearly 11,000 vehicles over the 25 years the company existed.[36]

The practical steam car championed by the Stanley brothers arrived too late to effectively compete with the assembly line produced internal combustion engine, but the company did last until 1924.[36] Stanley and the steam car were more of a victim of superior production techniques rather than a superiority of the basic technology. The steam vehicle was more a victim, just like the many other manufacturers of internal combustion engine vehicle of the time, of consolidation of the industry of making automobiles.

The Electric Heyday

When the first electric vehicle was invented is often debated, however, Robert Anderson of Scotland is typically attributed with having built and operated the first carriage powered by electricity that could carry passengers. He did this sometime between 1832 and 1839, the exact year is not exactly certain, hence the controversy. It is widely suspected, however, that Robert Anderson did indeed produce an electric carriage in 1832 making him the inventor of the first electric automobile. [21] In my research I could not find much on where the electricity came from to power the wheels of Robert Anderson's vehicle. It predates the invention of the rechargeable electric battery by Frenchmen Gaston Plante of 1865. It also predates the more successful electric road vehicles that were invented by both American Thomas Davenport and Scotsmen Robert Davidson around 1842 simultaneously, which were said to be the first to use non-rechargeable electric cells.[2] A few historians speculate that it was a non-rechargeable battery that Anderson used and I am left with believing the same thing only I could not find a solid reference to that.

In 1880 Emile Alphonse Faure improves on Gaston Plante's rechargeable battery with a paste of lead powder and sulfuric acid, making the lead-acid battery more reliable, others make more refinements the same year improving the battery even more.[3] The effect of these improvements leads instantly to widespread experimentation with electricity as the propulsion system for automobiles. Henry Morris and Pedro Salom produce vehicle prototypes right away. In 1885, "The Chicago Times-Herald sponsored a race in which one of the cars was the Electrobat II built by Henry Morris and Pedro Salom. It was powered by two 1-1/2 horsepower motors mounted on the front axle and had a range of 25 miles at 20 mph."[4] By 1886, the year when the first internal combustion vehicle was being invented, England had an electric-powered taxicab company on the drawing board.[5] More improvements were made. In 1890 William Morrison in Des Moines, Iowa built an electric vehicle that could travel for 13 hours at 14 mph on a 10 hour charge.[6] Keep in mind this is faster than a horse can operate and for much, much longer. In 1897 The London Electric Cab Company began regular service using electric vehicles designed by Walter Bersey that could travel 50 miles between charges. In 1897 Pope Manufacturing Company of Hartford, Connecticut built around 500 electric cars over a two-year period. In 1898 the Electric Carriage and Wagon Company of Philadelphia, started by engineers Henry Morris and Pedro Salom, had a fleet of twelve sturdy and stylish electric cabs on the streets of New York. [5]

Electric Taxi Cabs in New York 1897

By the year 1899 there was a feeling that electric vehicles were set for a boom, and they were: "In 1899 and 1900, electrics outsold all other type of cars..."[7] in the United State. The giddiness over electric vehicles and their future could have not been stronger. That year the marketplace shifted and the owners of Pope Manufacturing Company felt that a monopoly on cab services using electric vehicles was possible. They merged with Henry Morris and Pedro Salom's Electric Carriage and Wagon Company and Isaac L. Rice's Electric Storage Battery Company of Philadelphia. The new venture was named the Electric Vehicle Company[8] and had assets of $200 million.

Camille Jenatzy on the Jamais Contente

On April 29, 1899 a Belgium named Camille Jenatzy posted a recorded speed 66 miles per hour (100 kilometers per hour), nothing before had gone so fast.[10] and once again electric cars were at the top, selling more cars than any other type.[11] The Electric Vehicle Company made plans to run electric taxi services, in major cities across the country and in 1904 puts in orders for 2000 taxicabs, trucks, and buses. [34]That same year Walter Baker raced his Baker Torpedo, an advanced car that weighed 3,100 lbs, seated two and featured the world's first safety belts, to an unprecedented 104 mph at Daytona.[12] Electric vehicles were seen as the future for the automobile and there was lots of investment and interest in them.

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The takeover of the Electric Vehicle Company by the Whitney-Philadelphia syndicate, which was like what an alternative asset management or financial services company is today, began playing financial shenanigans and in 1907 we saw both the Electric Vehicle Company and the Pope Manufacturing Company go into receivership. [37]

The sudden demand for gasoline creates shortages of this formerly useless product, gasoline. Between 1907 and 1912 electric vehicles saw a resurgence. In 1907 Detroit Electric was born. The company focused on private ownership of electric vehicles that meet all of the transportation needs of ordinary people for the time. Its quality products and its price made it the best known and longest-lived electric car manufacturer in the U.S. selling over 14,000 cars before it closed its doors in 1929.[14]

Hybrids Make the Scene

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1903 Krieger used a gasoline engine and generator to supplement a battery pack with electricity. A series hybrid much like the Chevy Volt.

Just so you don't think that the Toyota Prius that first sold in Japan in 1997 was a brand new Japanese developed idea, in 1903 a company known by the name of its founder Krieger, produced the first manufactured hybrid electric-gasoline car,[15] and in 1910 a company called Commercial, working out of Philadelphia produced the first truck hybrid that had a gasoline engine powering an electric generator, the first iteration of a series hybrid.[16] However, even before these there was George Fisher, an American who made series hybrid busses that had an electric drive train that drew current from the batteries, but the batteries were charged by an internal combustion engine attached to a generator, much like the Chevy Volt today. These designs were created to match the quiet smooth ride and dependability of electric vehicle with the range of the internal combustion engines.[17] There were various manufacturers of vehicles at this time and many produced hybrids for a time. There was even one that had a dual drive system like the hybrids of today with regenerative coasting and braking and cruise control only made back in 1916 by the Woods Motor Vehicle Company of Chicago. It could get 45 miles per gallon of gasoline.[18]

When the electric starter was first introduced to the gasoline car, it in essence turned all gas powered cars into hybrids. Today our conventional cars have multiple electric motors, the electric starter motor, the alternator that runs the lights and charges the batteries, the electric motors for blowing air conditioned and heated air, motors for fuel pumps, door locks, automatic windows and more. Why an electric assisted drive train from all this electricity didn't emerge I can't fully understand. It may have been because air pollution was not as widespread a factor at the beginning of the automobile, perhaps the strong rivalry between electrically driven vehicles and internal combustion engine ones in the industry made it impossible for gasoline car manufactures to think of using electricity as a propulsion system along with their systems, perhaps gasoline was simply too cheap to bother with the expense of adding an electric motor to the propulsion system of the automobiles, for whatever reason, hybrids didn't become mainstream.

The Rise to Dominance of the Internal Combustion Engine

After a 1903 major financial scandal associated with the Electric Vehicle Company the internal combustion car gained in popularity. Gasoline in cans began to be sold in small stores along roads. At the turn of the century electricity was still new and expensive, while gasoline, as hard as it might seem today, was largely a useless byproduct of oil drilling typically burned off at the well and therefore was cheap. What oilmen were drilling for in those days was kerosene used in lamps.

In 1904 Henry Ford solved many of the problems that had made gasoline cars unpopular, namely their noise, their vibration, and their noxious odors. He also began a crude version of his assembly-line production and was able to produce a lower-priced, gas-powered car bringing the purchase price under $1,000.[19] The invisible hand of economics began to take hold and the more expensive electric vehicles and their central station business model began to lose market share to gasoline engine vehicles. Even though sales of electric cars continued to rise, sales of gasoline cars rose at a much faster rate.

It was only until World War I came about that gasoline truly became the dominant form of automobile propulsion. This occurred not by technical superiority, but mainly due to war effort purchases. Gasoline could be transported to the battlegrounds in Europe, something much more difficult for electricity to do. The governments of Europe subsidized gasoline truck purchases in order to be able to commandeer these vehicles later for the war. "The outbreak of World War I ended the broad resurgence of interest in the electric commercial vehicle. Impelled by skyrocketing demand for wartime exports, the capabilities of the gasoline truck expanded, along with the production capacity of the American truck industry."[20] It was government interaction, in the end, that pushed the dominance of gasoline in order to support the European war effort. However, steam and electric vehicles continued to have a place in the market well into the 1920s.

"The invention of the electric starter by Charles Kettering in 1912 eliminated the need for the hand crank."[21] This along with water cooling and Ford's innovations made the gasoline car more appealing to the general public and in particular to woman, who until this time had been electric vehicle's greatest proponents. It took ten years before electric starters would reach the Ford Model T, but the objections to gasoline power were being eliminated one by one and the market took notice.

In 1913, sales of electric cars dropped to 6,000 vehicles, while the Ford Model T, on a new moving assembly line that made an entire car in 90 minutes, sold 182,809 gasoline cars.[22]

This same year gasoline distribution changed. "According to Chevron, they built the first gasoline station in the U.S. in 1913, which started a boom in the building of these facilities until they were ubiquitous throughout the U.S. by 1920. In 1916 alone, over 200 petroleum companies were established in the U.S., which coincides neatly with the decline of the electric car."[23]

Why Did Electric Vehicles Lose?

Electric vehicles lost out to the internal combustion engine for various reasons. The biggest reason was that personal ownership of vehicles was becoming a reality and the model of the livery stable was no longer applicable. Electric vehicles were the first replacement for the personal transportation of the time, the horse. Horses were kept away from a person's place of dwelling and called upon when needed, or were hailed as a taxi service is today. "Morris and Salom's strategy was based upon the model of livery stables that leased horses and carriages by the trip, by the day, or even by the month."[24] The idea of keeping a vehicle at home was new. Only bicycles, as a mode of transportation, were kept at home for city dwellers.

The livery stable idea for electric vehicles made sense in the early years because the vehicles needed daily maintenance similar to horses. Nightly charging, oiling, and other things like cleaning could be taken care of at the "livery stable," only for electric vehicles the "livery stables" concept became known as "the central stations."

The monopoly established by the Electric Vehicle Company to control the central stations began to fail by 1904. The rapid expansion of the company into many cities, the newness of the technology and how to use it, the poor training of the central station workers, the high cost of electricity and more, lead to higher cost than the Electric Vehicle Company could recoup. Operations at the central stations led to cabs going out without being oiled and greased properly causing bearing failures in the wheels. The batteries were often used until they were completely exhausted, also called deep cycling, which reduced the life of the batteries considerably. Batteries were expensive and only had a two to three year cycle life normally. They were often not charged fully before being sent into duty, exacerbating the problem of deep cycling. These problems were partly due to the newness of electricity itself.

In New Jersey electricity was still seen as a novelty and so the power plants at that time would shut down at 6:00 P.M. so workers could go home and they would start up again after midnight limiting charging time for the EVC's electric taxis. This seems odd for us today, but in the early days of electricity and the electric car this was normal as well as a problem. Central stations were in reality at the mercy of these small power plants of the time that serviced only a few blocks with electricity. As time goes on large power plants take over small plants and AC power battled DC power for market dominance. Thomas Edison still had not set up a network of power generating stations and gas for lighting was still battling it out with electricity in the marketplace. These battles proved unsettling for the early establishment of the central station concept for electric vehicles.

In the intervening years after its heady beginning, the Electric Vehicle Company opted to use less than honorable practices to do its business. It used the famous Selden patent, which was the generic patent on the automobile to extort money from all automobile manufacturers. It took part in a great deal of stock manipulation rather than working to improve its operations. "Unfortunately, following its takeover by the Whitney-Philadelphia syndicate, the Electric Vehicle Company also became synonymous with trust building [making monopolies], stock jobbing [manipulating stock through buying and selling for profit], financial chicanery, and the infamous Selden patent."[25] Those who began to be hurt by the decline of the company in 1904 had nothing but bad things to say about the company and the prospects of the electric vehicle. Problems continued to plague the Electric Vehicle Company until it was liquidated in 1907. This was unfortunate because the electric vehicle, as a product, was fine and truly superior to the horse, steam car and the internal combustion engine of the time period. The collapse of the unscrupulous Electric Vehicle Company tainted all electric vehicles at the time. [18] With the demise of the EVC we see changes that prove to be fatal to the electric vehicle.

Petrol cars are marketed as having greater range, but their drawbacks are plentiful at the beginning, for one, people don't travel long distances by carriage anyway, they do that by train. However, once gasoline stations begin to take hold and intercity roads are paved or improved, the advantages of gasoline cars become more apparent. A new marketing approach takes hold at gasoline car dealerships during the 1910s and 1920s. It is the selling of the idea of taking the automobile on an adventure to places outside the city. This marketing direction tapped into a special visceral desire of automobile purchasers, which was named “the pull of the open road.” The possibility to go outside the city or even to other cities that began to really sell the gas powered car, something completely outside the ability of the electric vehicle. It mattered little to those doing the purchasing of an automobile that such travel was typically not done by most people who owned automobiles, and that such travel was, early on, fraught with road quality issues, mechanical problems, trouble finding fuel and flat tires, cars were not just a practical purchase but an emotional one.

Electric cars countered the range fantasy problem with a battery exchange program some time in the middle of 1900 to 1910. The strategy did help in the marketing of electric cars. Electric cars, when sold without the cost of the batteries, were more price-competitive with gasoline cars of the day. Batteries and their upkeep were then made a service and the owner was charged a fee. However, the coordination of this solution was left to the managers of the central stations and bickering over standards made the program ineffective. Full implementation in all of the markets was not done, which limited the penetration of the strategy. The service was received lukewarmly by the general electric automobile user, however, it did receive greater acceptance in commercial truck application and was one of the contributing factors to the resurgence of electric vehicles between 1907 and 1912. The service stayed alive after the demise of the electric vehicle, servicing startup batteries for gasoline vehicles.[18]

By far the largest blow to electric vehicles was the financial tomfoolery played with other people's money at the turn of the century. If the Electric Vehicle Company had concentrated on operations rather than the stock market manipulations, perhaps we would have a thriving electric taxi service today.

The electric trolley car certainly held on until GM made a concerted effort to turn those trolley cars into gasoline busses. Let me explain. In 1922, one in 10 American families owned a car. Mass transit was made up of a vast network of electric trolley lines and trains crisscrossing major American cities. Everyone was riding trolley cars and trains; no one in and around cities needed a car. So GM President Alfred P. Sloan Jr. combined corporate forces with Firestone Rubber, Standard Oil, Phillips Petroleum and Mack Trucks to create National City Lines (NCL), a bus-operating company. Using political know-how and the monetary influence of its private financiers, the organization pushed to have the trolley and train lines privatized and bought up the public rail systems one by one of more than 80 major cities across America. The organization increased fares, canceled routes, took trolleys out of service, reduced schedules and cut the salaries of employees. In 1936 the Justice Department finally cracked down on NCL and dismantled the company, but only fined them $1.[27]


The lessons learned from the market being given over to gasoline powered vehicles is that freedom of movement is what Americans wanted to buy when they purchase automobiles at the beginning of the 1900s. Any restrictions to that freedom of movement of one mode of transportation over another will inevitably lead to consumers choosing the vehicle that gives them the greatest of this. Another factor is price. Electric vehicles were more expensive than gasoline vehicles and therefore gasoline vehicles were affordable to a greater number of people, which in turn established the economies of scale that made their support products and services cheaper and more available.

The central problem that led to the demise of the electric vehicle was mainly the lack of coordination of the innovations developed at the time. If the technology that made William Morrison's electric vehicle capable of operating for 13 hours on a 10 hour charge,[28] BGS's vehicle have a range of 180 miles, and Baker's Torpedo have a top speed of 104 miles an hour, were incorporated into the designs of all electric vehicles, and if there were a network of battery exchange facilities established similar to the gasoline stations we have today, we could have had a completely different world of transportation, one based on electricity. The technology was there to compete with gasoline cars, even those cars with electric starters. What was missing was the effective bringing together of the technologies for the advancement of the industry. An electric car with all of the advancements named above might find a market niche today. Electric vehicles did not loose out to the internal combustion engine because of superior technology, but rather it lost out because of a financial scandal which destroyed to positive perception that electric cars had and lack of a coordinated effort to bring together the technology of the day to produce vehicles that were more advanced and more reliable than their gasoline counterparts. The same thing could be said about the steam car as well.

I would like to add that there was no reason that the electrified vehicle of the turn of the 1900s could not have been a hybrid other than cost and complexity. Honda was able to achieve much greater gas mileage with its first version hybrid, the diminutive three door Insight, with an electric motor that was only two inches in diameter assisting its internal combustion engine. This technique is so simple it could be installed as an add-on to any internal combustion vehicle that uses an alternator and a starter motor, which is to say that all current conventional vehicles could be made into mild hybrids. Also, a small electric motor in the rear axle of most front wheel drive cars that would engage only when pressing the accelerator and generate electricity when pressing the brake would greatly increase gas mileage. If these simple devices had been implemented during the gasoline shortages and embargos of long ago, hybrids may have been the rule rather than the exception. This would also have made advances in electric vehicle components evolve, which may have made full electric vehicles a greater competitive possibility.

[1] Shocking Developments, Informative Graphics Corporation, 2004 (Accessed April 29, 2004)
Reference moved to: Automotive History - Shocking Developments, musclecarclub.com

[2] Ecars: Early Years (Accessed April 29, 2004) (moved to MuscleCarClub.com - Reaccessed August 20, 2013)

[3] Battery History, Europulse.com, TNI Ltd. (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[4] Electric Vehicle Timeline, Newton Public School System, 2003 (Accessed April 29, 2004)

[5] Hybrid Car History, Hybridcars.com, 2003 (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[6] Electric Vehicle Timeline, Newton Public Schools, Newton MA (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[7] Bottorff, William W., What Was The First Car? (Accessed April 29, 2004)

[8] Hybrid Car History, Hybridcars.com, 2003 (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[9] Shocking Developments, Innerauto.com (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[10] Some EV History, Econogics.com, 2003 (Accessed May 1, 2004) http://www.econogics.com/ev/evhiste.htm

[11] Bottorff, William W., What Was The First Car? - A Quick History of the Automobile for Young People, (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[12] World Electric Land Speed Records, Speedace,com (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[13] De La Rive Box, Rob, The Complete Encyclopedia of Antique Cars: Sport and Passenger Cars 1886-1940, (Netherlands, Rebo International b.v. 1998)

[14] Shocking Developments, Innerauto.com (Accessed May 1, 2004)
Information moved to: Automotive History, http://www.kasravi.com/cmu/tec452/HW1-AutoHistory.htm

[15] Electric Vehicle Timeline, Newton Public Schools, Newton MA (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[16] Hybrid Car History, Hybridcars.com, 2003 (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[17] Kirsch, David A., The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History, (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 2000). p214

[18] Kirsch, David A., The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History, (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 2000).

[19] Hybrid Car History, Hybridcars.com, 2003 (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[20] Kirsch, David A., The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History, (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 2000).

[21] Bellis, Mary, Inventors, The History of Electric Vehicles, The Early Years - Electric Cars (1890 - 1930), About.com2 (Accessed April 29, 2004) http://inventors.about.com/library/weekly/aacarselectrica.htm

[22] Hybrid Car History, Hybridcars.com, 2003 (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[23] Some EV History, 2003 (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[24] Kirsch, David A., The Electric Car and the Burden of History: Studies in Automotive Systems Rivalry in America, 1890-1996 (Accessed May 1, 2004) http://sloan.stanford.edu/EVonline/kirsch.htm

[25] Kirsch, David A., The Electric Car and the Burden of History: Studies in Automotive Systems Rivalry in America, 1890-1996 (Accessed May 1, 2004) http://sloan.stanford.edu/EVonline/kirsch.htm

[26] Kirsch, David A., The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History, (New Brunswick, New Jersey: Rutgers University Press. 2000).

[27] Voros, Jeremy, The Sad Story of the Demise of Public Transit, The Daily Utah Chronicle ñ 2002 (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[28] Electric Vehicle Timeline, Newton Public Schools, Newton MA (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[29](Accessed May 1, 2004)

[30] History of Early American Automobile Industry, 1891-1929, Chapter 2 (Accessed August 28, 2013)

[31]Whistling Billy History, The Steam Car Club of Great Britain (Accessed May 1, 2004)

[32]Beecroft, David, History of the American Automobile Industry, (The Automobile magazine in serial form between October 1915 and August 1916) (Accessed September 8, 2013, Google Books)

[33] Copland, 3-wheelers.com (Accessed September 8, 2013)

[34] How A New York Taxi Company Killed The Electric Car In 1900, jalopnik.com (Accessed September 8, 2013)

[35] Lucius Copeland, Wikipedia.org (Accessed September 8, 2013)

[36] The Stanley Steamer, Why The Fascination?, StanleyMotorCarriage.com (Accessed October 10, 2013)

[37] Rae, John B., The Electric Vehicle Company: A Monopoly that Missed, sloan.stanford.edu (Accessed May 1, 2004)

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