Real Electric Vehicles

LEAD ACID BATTERIES

Mar 13, 2019

Do you know much about LEAD ACID BATTERIES. I think you need to know all about them.

LEAD ACID batteries

Do you know that LEAD Acid batteries have been around for over 100 years? With the FACTS below do you think we would use any if they were new today? Why haven’t we banned them now that we have lots of other choices like Nickle-Iron, NiMH and Lithium.

Here are some FACTS from Wiki https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lead%E2%80%93acid_battery

The lead–acid battery was invented in 1859 by French physicist Gaston Planté and is the oldest type of rechargeable battery

-Risk of Explosion-

Accumulated hydrogen and oxygen sometimes ignite in an internal explosion. The force of the explosion can cause the battery's casing to burst, or cause its top to fly off, spraying acid and casing fragments. An explosion in one cell may ignite any combustible gas mixture in the remaining cells. Similarly, in a poorly ventilated area, connecting or disconnecting a closed circuit (such as a load or a charger) to the battery terminals can also cause sparks and an explosion, if any gas was vented from the cells.

Individual cells within a battery can also short circuit, causing an explosion.

-Environmental concerns

According to a 2003 report entitled "Getting the Lead Out", by Environmental Defense and the Ecology Center of Ann Arbor, Michigan, the batteries of vehicles on the road contained an estimated 2,600,000 metric tons (2,600,000 long tons; 2,900,000 short tons) of lead. Some lead compounds are extremely toxic. Long-term exposure to even tiny amounts of these compounds can cause brain and kidney damage, hearing impairment, and learning problems in children.[32] The auto industry uses over 1,000,000 metric tons (980,000 long tons; 1,100,000 short tons) every year, with 90% going to conventional lead–acid vehicle batteries. While lead recycling is a well-established industry, more than 40,000 metric tons (39,000 long tons; 44,000 short tons) ends up in landfills every year. According to the federal Toxic Release Inventory, another 70,000 metric tons (69,000 long tons; 77,000 short tons) are released in the lead mining and manufacturing process.

Attempts are being made to develop alternatives (particularly for automotive use) because of concerns about the environmental consequences of improper disposal and of lead smelting operations, among other reasons. Alternatives are unlikely to displace them for applications such as engine starting or backup power systems, since the batteries, although heavy, are low-cost.

-Corrosion problems

Corrosion of the external metal parts of the lead–acid battery results from a chemical reaction of the battery terminals, lugs and connectors.

Corrosion on the positive terminal is caused by electrolysis, due to a mismatch of metal alloys used in the manufacture of the battery terminal and cable connector. White corrosion is usually lead or zinc sulfate crystals. Aluminum connectors corrode to aluminum sulfate. Copper connectors produce blue and white corrosion crystals. Corrosion of a battery's terminals can be reduced by coating the terminals with petroleum jelly or a commercially available product made for the purpose.

. If the battery is over-filled with water and electrolyte, thermal expansion can force some of the liquid out of the battery vents onto the top of the battery. This solution can then react with the lead and other metals in the battery connector and cause corrosion.

The electrolyte can seep from the plastic-to-lead seal where the battery terminals penetrate the plastic case.

Acid fumes that vaporize through the vent caps, often caused by overcharging, and insufficient battery box ventilation can allow the sulfuric acid fumes to build up and react with the exposed metals.

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