MEDIA REVIEWS is a compilation of reviews and write-ups of test drives of various e-drive vehicles by the different authors and media. Opinions expressed do not necessarily reflect the views of EV World. Click the article title to expand the story.
Drive Off: Fiat 500e v. Chevy Spark EV
Despite the Spark EV's higher torque numbers, the Fiat 500e is quicker: here's why.
Green Car Reports 25 Jul 2014
The 2014 Fiat 500e has far lower power and torque numbers than the 2014 Chevrolet Spark EV; yet at city speeds, of below 40 mph or so, the 500E feels (and is) quicker.
Given their nearly identical curb weights, the numbers would suggest the Spark being far quicker. The Chevrolet Spark EV is rated at 141 horsepower and—as Chevy has been pushing in ads—an astonishing 400 pound-feet of torque; and as Chevrolet boasts, it's available from zero rpm. Meanwhile, the motor system in the 500E makes 111 horsepower and 147 lb-ft.
Yet this past week, we were able to jump into one after the other at a Portland media ride-and-drive meetup called Drive Revolution, and the 500e felt so unmistakably quicker at low speed than the much boasted-about, 400-pound-feet Spark EV.
Sure enough, in instrumented testing, Car and Driver found the same—that the 500e is quicker than the Spark EV to 30 mph (2.8 seconds versus 3.2 seconds. To 60 mph, however, the Spark EV pulls about a half-second ahead; that's something we would have guessed as well.
500E has far lower torque numbers, yet it's quicker...
We decided to ask Fiat 500e chief engineer (and former engineering lead for Chrysler's ENVI electric prototypes) Brett Giem why the (weaker) 500e is clearly quicker.
According to Giem, there's one elementary term that electric-car owners tend to forget about: gearing. There's a 9.6:1 reduction gear in the 500e, versus about 3:1 in the Spark EV. And that results in—at least some situations—wheel torque that's quite competitive, even though the 500e's numbers don't suggest it.
While both cars, as with all of the all-electric vehicles currently offered on the U.S. market, are laid out with single-speed direct-drive transmissions, gearing still plays a big part in how electric cars perform and at what speed they're most efficient.
Giem said that the only disadvantage of using a lower reduction gear, as in the 500e is that you become limited in your top speed; the 500e has a maximum of 88 mph, and it's because the engineers put a 12,800-rpm limiter on the motor.
“Zero to 12,000 rpm, it just goes,” said Giem. “Our approach was, what was the right combination of power, torque reduction, and top speed...there was a balance; it's an equation that needs to be solved.”
And, explained Giem, the right ratio is what keeps the engine in its most efficient sweet spot at 40 mph.
Electronic torque limiting: the other piece of the puzzle
According to Giem there's a secondary reason, that the Spark EV doesn't feel as quick as its torque ratings suggest. That's because, in order to keep the Chevy safe at launch and at very low speed (it's far more torque than a front-drive subcompact like the Spark could ever handle), they extremely limited torque delivery at lower speeds.
Meanwhile, the Fiat team assured that, given the motor and the ratio, that they wouldn't need to put an electronic 'cap' on torque. And as Giem explained, that's a big part of what makes the 500e fun to drive.
There are some analogies to be drawn here to vintage cars and their simpler transmissions; just as you'd want the right cam profile and the right drive ratio, the same goes for electric cars. More than we thought.
Chevy Spark EV : Maybe the Best Overall Electric Car Out There
John Goreham finds the Spark EV is a good electric commuter car that 'has so much going for it.'
Torque News 06 Feb 2014
Coming up the ranks quietly behind the Tesla Model S and the Nissan Leaf is an EV that is starting to win all of the comparison tests it enters. Would you have guessed it is the Chevy Spark EV?
Guess which electric car was chosen the winner by Car and Driver in its most recent shoot-out of popular EV/Plug-ins? Now, name the EV that has 400 ft pounds of torque. This car has the lowest 5- year cost of ownership according to Kelly Blue Book. The gas version of this same car just scored the highest in its category in the world’s toughest crash test and is a Top Safety Pick. Finally, the car we are talking about is also the second most fuel efficient vehicle in the US market. If you guessed the Chevy Spark EV you’re right.
The Chevy Spark EV sold 98 units last month continuing its monthly growth rate over the past few. That was surprising since most EVs nose-dived in US sales last month. The world of electric cars is extremely small. Even when counting the plug-in hybrids on the market the total number of EVs sold in the United States in January 2014 was 5,470. To put that into some perspective, in that same month Toyota sold 11,402 Prius cars not including the plug-in version of that car. Even as green cars go, EVs are a small sub segment of the marketplace. Chevy seems to have a hit on its hands and may want to consider building a few more than it needs to meet the California and other ZEV state mandates.
The Spark EV costs just $26,421 to own for 5 years according to Kelly Blue Book which is the best of all EVs and plug-ins. That means including fuel, insurance, maintenance and factoring in tax considerations this car will cost you about $440 per month. That makes it even more affordable than the Toyota Corolla, though in fairness we should point out that the Spark EV is a mini-car and much smaller than a Corolla. Still, the Spark EV is not costing you anything extra to own compared to the Spark gasoline version, which is the most affordable subcompact in the market. If you want a financial reality check, according to the results we got when we used Tesla’s Model S cost of ownership calculator we came up with a monthly cost to own of $1,095. That was for a base 2013 Model S with no navigation system, no high speed charging capability, no supercharger compatibility and it did include the fuel savings and all tax credits (in Massachusetts). The Tesla Model S is by far a superior automobile to the Chevy Spark, and if you have the means we highly recommend it. It may be the best car in the world at any price, but its price point excludes most Americans.
All the EVs and plug-ins I have driven other than the Tesla Model S are slow. Despite what some call high torque, they just don’t go, and they try to make your driving style that of a hyper miler by resisting all your attempts to drive normally or have any fun at all. The Chevy Spark EV is quickly gaining a reputation as a fun to drive car. Car and Driver called the Spark EV “Quick and Spry, fun and cheerful...” That magazine also ranked it number one among all EVs, setting aside the Tesla Model S, which was not included in the comparison. The Spark EV ran to 60 MPH in under 8 seconds, the informal cut-off for any fun in any car at any price.
The Spark EV is not for everyone. It is not a family car and it is not a luxury car. However, as a city car or commuter car it is hard to find an EV that has so much going for it.
Electric Power Puts Charge Back in Chevy Spark
Bill Howard reviews the Spark EV and finds its navigation system and electric drive 'washes away the sins of the gas version.'
Extreme Tech 17 Nov 2013
The unremarkable Chevrolet Spark, gasoline edition, becomes a desirable, almost cheap urban commuter car when you swap in an electric motor. What’s more, with the Spark EV, the smartphone-based navigation starts to fulfill the promise of significant apps running off your phone and streamed to the car’s LCD display. With the gas-powered Spark, people say, “It’s easy to park and it’s cheap.” With the 2014 Spark electric people will add, “It’s fun to drive and cheap… for an EV.”
The Chevrolet Spark is a Honda Fit wannabe, only smaller and cheaper — both are subcompacts with decent back seats. With the gasoline models the Spark is noisy (by 2014 standards), accelerates slowly, and bounces on rough roads. Meanwhile, the best-in-class Fit loses a little of its spunk going from gas to electric, the Spark EV gets quicker and more fun to drive despite lugging around an extra 600 pounds over the gasoline model.
Of course, mileage is a key selling point. Chevy says normal drivers will get 82 miles per charge with the EV. I got as little as 65 miles when I pushed the car hard on the freeway and as many as 95 miles with cautious acceleration and deceleration. All that’s about normal for a small EV: with today’s cars you’ll get more than enough range to commute to and from work, not enough for a weekend trip.
Give General Motors and Chevrolet credit — lots of credit — for a thoughtful center stack and navigation design. Every Spark EV includes a 7-inch touchscreen and MyLink music control (like Ford Sync), the better to show off the motor/battery efficiency possibilities on the screen.
More importantly, the Spark version of MyLink allows you to use navigation from your smartphone. So far, there’s only one choice, a brand you’ve never heard of, BringGo (formerly GoGo Link) from Korea’s Engis Technologies, and it costs $50. It works with iPhone or Android. I drove the larger Chevrolet Sonic a year ago with BringGo and was unimpressed with the execution. Basically, it was a great concept, with a so-so interface and hard-to-read maps, but it got you to your destination.
The current version is improved and if it’s not enough to knock out Google Maps or Navigon in a head-to-head, it’s good enough and can only get better with future upgrades, which will be free. Compare that to $1000 navigation systems that charge $100-$200 for map updates.
GM is the one automaker to recognize a simple truth: The market for $500-$1000 built-in navigation in a sub-$20,000 car is nil. Other automakers do nothing, which cedes the market to Garmins and TomToms stuck on the windshield, or a smartphone with navigation sliding around on the center console or maybe hanging on a windshield mount. But then most automakers are still in a quandary whether to kill the CD player and make USB standard.
Chevrolet still has a ways to go with infotainment. Navigation is buried one layer down in Apps, along with Pandora, Stitcher, TuneIn, and other smartphone apps. With most cars, you press one button to go from entertainment to navigation. Here, you have to go to the menu and then the Apps tab onscreen, press that, then press the Navigation button. It takes longer to read the sentence than perform the task, but on a rough road, and remember this is not a Cadillac XTS with pillow-soft ride, the nav screen, like the car, bounces around. Also the volume controls are up-down buttons and no way is that as quick to adjust as a simple dial.
Chevrolet was the first automaker to offer Siri Eyes Free and its first implementation was the Spark. Eyes Free lets you interact with an Apple iOS device from your car. Press the talk button on the steering wheel and tell Siri what you want to do. The driver or passenger can make a phone call, get calendar information, create text messages, or play songs from iTunes. It’s voice-only interaction, nothing is displayed on the iPhone screen, and other apps are also locked out. This may be more of a lockdown than some drivers want. Some apps can’t be fully accessed by Siri (no info shows on the cars’s LCD) unless you disconnect the phone from the car.
The Spark EV on the road
The Spark EV is quick enough. GM built its own oil-cooled electric motor and it’s powerful, with 140 hp (105 kW) and a truck-like 400 pound-feet of torque. All the extra weight is down low, with the 21 kWh lithium ion battery pack under the back seat, so it actually has a lower center of gravity than the gasoline Spark. The 0-60 time is also lower, around 8 seconds vs. 12-13 seconds. The slowest thing about getting going is waiting for passengers to find the rear door handle — it’s at shoulder height along the door’s trailing edge.
My test car was Chevy’s Spark-EV signature color, electric blue. The color carries through to the cockpit including parts of the dashboard (old VW Beetles did the same thing). You will find it makes the car look cheap or, to some, very cool.
The instrument panel is mostly digital, with the requisite economy indicators and floating balls that travel up or down depending on nice you’re being to the battery pack. The range indicator was especially useful, showing expected mileage remaining as a band of possibilities: high, low, and likely mileage based on your recent driving.
For my most economical trip, I started with a full charge and indicated 97-mile range. In 80 miles of urban-suburban driving with the Eco button engaged and being conscious of my driving style, I ended with the range indicator showing 15 miles of battery life remaining. Using the 120V charger that comes with the car, restoring the battery to full charge took the better part of a day.
Tweaks to hike Spark EV’s efficiency
Chevrolet tweaked a half-dozen components to help mpg. The upper grille of the engine compartment is sealed and the active shutters on the lower intake open only when air is needed to help cool the electric motor. Low rolling resistance tires boost mpg by 5-7%. Tire deflectors, full-length underbody panels and diffusers, and rocker panels smooth airflow around the car. The Spark EV also has heavier suspension parts and bigger rear tires to deal with the electric model’s 3000 pounds. Like the gasoline Spark, there are 10 airbags, or one for every 15 inches of length.
When I drove a gas-engine Chevrolet Spark, it bordered on painful. At 147 inches long (less than a Mini coupe), the car zips around town, then labors to reach highway speed and because of its wheelbase 1.5 feet shorter than a full-size car, the gas Spark bucks and pitches on expansion joints. But it’s cheap: $13,000 list price, or $16,000 with freight and automatic transmission for the cheapest model (1LT) that offers MyLink and an automatic transmission.
$20,000 or $200 lease for a Spark EV after tax credits
The Spark EV sells for about $20,000 after that nifty $7500 federal tax credit, or $200 a month on a three-year lease. GM offers a subsidized 220V Bosch charging station for about $500, plus electrician fees. If you buy, you really want to get the rapid charger, which offers a seven-hour complete charge.
As for range anxiety, keep in mind that you’re not going to do much highway driving. This is OK because the open road is where the Spark is least competitive. Even so, the Spark EV is compatible with the DC Fast Charge standard that promises to take an EV from 20% charge to full in just 30 minutes. DC Fast Charge will be an optional feature, with the price not yet set, but probably an extra $500-$1000. (This is the SAE standard supported by BMW, Chrysler, Ford, GM, Daimler (Mercedes, Smart) and VW; the competing fast-charge standard is CHAdeMO, supported by Mitsubishi, Nissan, and Toyota.)
With the EV Spark, there’s a chance you’ll get back the $4000 price differential, and then some, from cheaper energy costs. GM estimates you could save as much as $9000 in energy costs based on the Spark EV’s ratings of 119 MPGe city and 100MPGe highway.
Keep in mind “MPGe” is a miles per gallon equivalent. The EV is so efficient that your cost for electricity is the same as if it were a gasoline engine getting 119 mpg in the city or 100 mpg in the highway. With the Spark EV, you can travel 100 miles on $3-$4 of electricity.
My calculation suggests a 4-5 year payback. If you used the car for a little under half its range every day, or 35 miles, you’d cover 12,000 miles in a year. Compared to the gasoline Spark at 32 mpg EPA combined rating, you’d save about $900 a year in energy costs ($1238 vs. $360). That’s assuming you only charge at home; if you have an employer with free charging stations, you’d save even more; if you used public charging stations, you’d pay a premium for the electricity. Add in another $500-$1000 for a 220V charging station, so the EV premium is about $5000… which you’ll earn back at $1000 a year.
Should you buy a 2014 Spark EV?
The 2014 Chevrolet Spark EV make sense if you want a really compact electric vehicle at a good price (for an EV). After rebates, you can get it for around $20,000. At 146 inches, it’s small even for subcompact — about as long as a Mini (which has no back seat to speak of), 1.5 feet shorter than a Honda Fit, 2.5 feet shorter than a Nissan Leaf which is more of a compact car. That makes it easier to find small parking spaces as you drive around the city, although you’ll need a garage for charging.
You’ll also need a place to buy the Spark EV. Initially, Chevrolet only sells the Spark EV in two green western states: California and Oregon.
In your break-even calculations, budget $500-$1000 for the 220V charger and installation. My advice: Don’t worry about the DC Fast Charge option until the EV after this one, because there are only a handful of charging stations and there’s still a feud between two fast charge standards, just like Blu-Ray vs. HD DVD.
Among gas-powered cars, the Honda Fit is the most desirable subcompact, more so than the Spark, Scion iQ, Fiat 500, or the tiny Smart fortwo. The Mini Cooper Hardtop is the same size outside, smaller inside, but it’s $5000 costlier. The Spark and Fit have four doors. Among subcompact EVs, it’s a closer call between the two roomier cars, the Fit and the Spark EV. In Chevrolet’s favor, there’s price, especially the $200 lease, half what Honda Charges, and the ingenious, low-cost navigation option. For running around town, any car that gets you there is pretty good, and that includes the Spark EV.
Chevy Spark EV is One Sweet Ride
USA Today columnist James R. Healey loves the torque in Chevy's battery-electric Spark, but isn't convinced its cheap operating cost justifies its high price.
USA Today 06 Oct 2013
As much torque as a Hemi V-8, less rear-seat space than a picnic basket, an absurdly high price unless you qualify for all the "eco" credits.
But the Chevrolet Spark EV, on sale since June in California and Oregon, has a premium feel that we didn't notice in the gasoline model. No doubt the extraordinary sling-about go-power of the EV put a higher-level patina on the whole car.
Spark's a minicar, a little bigger than a Fiat 500. The gasoline models are priced about 58% of the EV, so it's hard to imagine you'd save enough on fuel to pay the difference.
And you're not really the green hero you might imagine. While there's no exhaust emission from the car, you've tapped into the utility company's power grid to recharge, and nearly half the electricity flowing on that grid, on average, is generated by generators burning coal.
Juice is cheaper than gasoline now, but if electrics catch on, the price of power will rise with increasing demand. That's because the grid's about maxed out, and it's very expensive to add more power plants. Carried to extremes, it's fair to argue that your EV raises my electricity bill.
But how is the Spark EV as a car, a drivable thing that gets you here and there? Pretty sweet, actually.
First, it's simple. Hop in, push the ignition switch, pull the lever into gear and away you go.
Second, it's comfy if you're in front. Seats are well-formed and controls and instruments are about where they ought to be.
Third, the buggy flat goes, at least once it's rolling a couple miles per hour. The one-speed transmission isn't a gem for zooming away from a dead start, but the 400 pounds-feet of torque the electric motor has is instantly available and slings the Spark EV forward delightfully once underway. Chevy quotes 0 to 60 mph in 7.6 seconds. We bet it could be 6 seconds or less if there were a transmission with low gearing to get rolling.
Fourth, Chevy parent General Motors does in-car electronic connectivity linkup very nicely. The MyLink setup (shared with the gas version of Spark) made fast and faithful friends with Test Drive's too-hip Windows phone.
The connection is fully integrated via Bluetooth, no wire connection needed (unless you want to plug into the 12-volt outlet to charge). All phone controls are available via the car controls. When playing phone tunes, the screen in the center of the dashboard shows title and artist, whether the music is stored on the phone or piped in via the phone's Pandora application.
The Chevy allows switching tracks and adjusting the volume via the dashboard — things you have to do on the phone instead of the car in some lesser system. Picking up the phone to find another song is a driver distraction that Spark avoids.
It's enough to make Ford Sync owners weep.
What you might dislike about an otherwise appealing little go-buggy:
Hooking up the charging cable. Minor, but more work than stuffing a gas nozzle into the fuel filler. The fat electric cord used by 240-volt chargers is stiff and kinky and unpleasant to coil up when out of use. Almost always dirty, too, because it drapes along the ground to reach your car.
Short range. Well, 82 miles, government rated, is in the ballpark for mainstream electrics, but unless all your miles are home to work and back, you're going to start feeling that "range anxiety" they talk about.
Driving highway-fast, with lights and climate control operating, we burned off 1.3 miles of indicated battery range for every mile driven. That was a thirsty surprise. The kick-it-and-go suburban driving we did took only about 0.9 of a mile of range for every mile driven.
Back seat. So cramped for knee and leg space that even the kids will yowl. The head restraints are terrible, too. They'll drop down when unused to improve rear visibility, but that wrenches the head and neck of the people who hop in and forget to raise them. Once raised, they often hit the skull at just the wrong spot.
It's more practical to have a back seat than not, but Spark's is an impractical back seat, at best.
Styling. If you hate how it looks, of course, you wouldn't buy it in the first place. But if you're on the fence, be warned that the stumpy, truncated appearance seems like a car trying to emerge from the industrial equivalent of a photo zip file, and not quite making it. Reasonable people often disagree on matters of taste, so you might think Spark's eye candy.
Most telling? In a driveway full of appealing machines, including BMWs, which car did we take for that midnight milk run, and fast hop to pick up a prescription? Spark EV. Easy to use, small enough to park almost anywhere. And, yum, wonderfully powerful.
We hope GM decides not to limit it to California and Oregon much longer. The world at large needs a shot at an EV that'll blow the doors off some sporting machines. The sooner we make this fuel-saving business a joy ride, the sooner we'll have a lot of converts.
CHEVY SPARK DETAILS
What? Electric-power version of Spark four-door, four-passenger, front-drive minicar.
When? Went on sale in California and Oregon mid-June. Sale in other areas under consideration.
Where? Made in South Korea using U.S. drivetrain.
How much? $27,495, including $810 shipping for 1LT base model. Similarly equipped gasoline version is $15,820.
Up-level 2LT test car, which has different upholstery and steering-wheel trim, is $27,820.
Some EV buyers qualify for as much as $7,500 in federal tax credit. California gives $2,500 credit. Lease is $199 monthly for 36 months, $999 down.
Most owners will spend another $1,000 or more for a 240-volt charger to cut the long recharging time using the standard-issue 120-volt charger.
What makes it go? Electric motor rated 130 horsepower and 400 pounds-feet of torque, driving front wheels through a single-speed transmission.
How big? About 5 inches longer, an inch narrower than a Fiat 500. Maximum cargo space, 23.4 cubic feet.
How thirsty? Electrics are rated differently from gasoline, diesel and hybrid models. Government says Spark EV will go 82 miles on a full charge, and has mile-per-gallon equivalent ratings of 128 mpg in the city, 109 highway, 119 mpg-e in combined city/highway driving; uses 28 kilowatt-hours per 100 miles.
Test car observations: Full charge showed range of 82 to 85 miles on instrument panel. High-speed highway driving used 1.3 miles of range for every mile driven. Vigorous suburban driving used 0.9 mile of range for every mile driven.
Trip computer showed overall power consumption of 24.4 kwh per 100 miles. According to government nationwide averages, a kwh is about 13 cents, equating to $3.17 in electricity per 100 miles.
Gasoline Spark is rated 32 mpg in combined city/highway, or 3.13 gallons per 100 miles. At $3.40 a gallon, a recent nationwide average, the gasoline Spark would use $10.64 in petroleum fuel per 100 miles. That's nearly 3.4 times the cost of electricity to go as far.
Overall: Gotta love that torque; a real scooter. Back seat's a joke. Cheaper fuel cost can't erase higher purchase cost.
Consumer Reports 'Shocked' By Chevy Spark EV
EPA-estimated range of the electric Spark is 82 miles, the same as the Ford Focus EV and Fiat 500e, but more than the Nissan LEAF's 75 miles.
Consumer Reports 21 Jul 2013
The latest Chevrolet Spark is the most recent EV to attempt to shatter electric cars' reputation as anemic and inept. And it succeeds, being the best version of this small hatchback. Unlike the Mitsubishi i, this is no glorified golf cart.
The Spark EV is General Motors' entry in the crucial California market to meet that state's Zero Emissions Vehicle requirement. But it's also one of the most enjoyable electric cars we've driven and a compelling overall package.
Turning the diminutive Spark into an EV transforms it into a punchy, zippy, fun little runabout, a far cry from the conventional, slow noisy and stiff Spark that earned a meager overall score in our tests.
Changes to the Spark's weight distribution and suspension, to deal with the extra 560-pounds of battery weight, contribute to more responsive handling, making the Spark EV feel sporty. Ride comfort is also significantly more compliant and tied down than in the regular Spark.
Producing about 130 hp and 400 lb.-ft. of torque, the electric motor is a gift that keeps on giving. Press the go-pedal and the car catapults forward, but unlike some EVs, the thrust doesn't wane. The Spark EV keeps gathering speed enthusiastically all the way to its top speed of 90 mph. The sprint from 0-60 mph is claimed to be between 7.5 and 8 seconds, which is more than believable. It takes some getting used to use the throttle's touchiness to avoid torque steer. The shifter has two modes: "Drive" works like a conventional automatic transmission without aggressive regenerative braking. "Low" maximizes regenerative braking and slows the car down as soon as you lift off the accelerator.
The electric juice comes from a 21.3-kWh lithium-ion battery pack that straddles the rear axle and doesn't bite into the Spark's already tiny cabin or cargo space. It gives the Spark EV an EPA-estimated range of 82 miles, similar to that of the Ford Focus EV and Fiat 500e, and longer than the Nissan Leaf's 75 miles.
While that is a real limitation, the car is intended as an urban commuter expected to be recharged routinely at home overnight. It takes seven hours to replenish the battery on 240 volts. It could have been faster had GM chosen a 6.6-kWh onboard charger, but GM's engineers say they didn't see the need for it. They did, however, go to the trouble of equipping the Spark with the new SAE "combo" charging port that eventually will allow for fast DC charging to 80 percent of the battery's capacity in 20 minutes.
The Spark takes advantage of many systems used in the Chevrolet Volt, including some of its gauges and driver interface. The range indicator is prominent and includes an optimistic estimate in case you're driving frugally and a pessimistic one in case you're exploiting the car's effortless punch too often. We found this feature handy, minimizing the tendency for range indicators to jump around too dramatically as you drive. Hence, the gauge is appropriately called the "confidence meter."
The electric Spark's newfound quietness helps you to better enjoy the connected radio that GM refers to internally as "Buy-Own." The system, much of which is also included in the gas Spark, combines Pandora, Stitcher, and Tune-In Internet radio, Siri voice commands, Bluetooth phone pairing, and a navigation system called BringGo. The services rely on your phone's data connection, so you need to be mindful of how much data you use. BringGo downloads its maps to your phone, so it minimizes the data transfer compared to, say, Google navigation. In the Spark EV, concentric circles on the maps show how far you can venture based on the car's remaining range.
The Spark goes on sale this summer in only California and Oregon for $27,495. But it is eligible for $10,000 worth of tax credits in California or $8,250 in Oregon. The Spark EV can also be leased for $99 down and $199 a month for three years (which includes the tax credits; you don't get them separately).
We think the Spark EV is by far the best version of this car, and it has the potential to appeal to others interested in electric vehicles beyond California and Oregon.
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